Metal Detectors are used for finding ferrous metals that most property corner markers are constructed with as well as valves, manhole covers and some underground utilities. This tool is limited by adjacent metallic objects such as fences or vehicles.
Digital Survey levels are used to determine very precise elevations and vertical measurement for topographic and control network surveys. This tool is limited to direct line of sight along a horizontal plane.
Total Stations are used for gathering high precision horizontal data by measuring horizontal angles, vertical angles and distances using infrared light ranging also known as electronic distance measurement (EDM). This tool is limited to a direct line of sight to targets. Effective in wooded or metropolitan areas.
GPS systems utilize multiple constellations of satellite information based on known orbital ephemerides that can produce very precise measurement data over long distances. This tool is limited to areas having a clear and unobstructed view to the sky. Less effective in wooded or metropolitan areas.
3D scanning systems provide highly detailed precision data of large areas that are within view of the instrument. Millions of 3D data points can be collected in minutes that represent buildings, bridges, facades or other large areas. This tool is limited to direct line of sight to target areas. Unwanted data shadows can hinder output quality.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV systems) can collect aerial imagery useful for photogrammetric mapping purposes. Maps can be generated of entire cities with high levels of detail and precision. This tool is limited by ground obstructions, trees, weather conditions, outdoor light quality and is not effective in wooded areas.
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